For a pre-modernist notion of “career”, compare cursus honorum. By the late 20th century, a wide range of choices (especially in the range of potential professions) and more widespread education had allowed it to become possible to plan (or design) a career: in this respect the careers of the career counselor and of the career advisor have grown up. It is also not uncommon for adults in the late 20th/early 21st centuries to have dual or multiple careers, either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, professional identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this shift in work ethic. Economist Richard Florida notes this trend generally and more specifically among the “creative class”.
Career management describes the active and purposeful management of a career by an individual. Ideas of what comprise “career management skills” are described by the Blueprint model (in the United States, Canada, Australia, Scotland, and England and the Seven C’s of Digital Career Literacy (specifically relating to the Internet skills).
Key skills include the ability to reflect on one’s current career, research the labour market, determine whether education is necessary, find openings, and make career changes.